Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)

Aureli Soil Srl has been operating for years in the field of structural surveys, with extreme professionalism, paying attention on staff training ( RINA III Certification Level).

CORING IN CLS

Core drilling for cylindrical samples, using diamond crowned core cutter.
The direct sampling of samples in place allows to obtain very useful parameters for the evaluation of the mechanical characteristics (deformation and resistance) and chemical properties of the materials investigated.
UNI EN 12504-1:2002

REINFORCEMENT EXTRACTION TESTS

The extraction of reinforcing bar samples for the traction test (EN 10002:1) wich determines enervation, breaks, elongation, section equivalents, weight, brand a load-elongation diagram.

CARBONATION TESTS

Semi-destructive investigation technique that allows to measure the depth of carbonation of the surface layer of a concrete structure, since, with the passage of time, carbon dioxide tends to “carbonate” the surface layer of the conglomerate. The test must be carried out immediately after the concrete sample is extracted by coring.
Operationally, the sample is immersed in a phenolphthalein solution containing 1% ethyl alcohol, causing a purple coloration in the area not affected by carbonation. The “colorless” section, instead, indicates the depth of carbonation.

UNI EN 14630:2007

SCLOREMETRIC TESTS

Non-destructive surveys, which allow the estimation of the compressive strength of concrete and qualitatively assess its uniformity over the entire structure, by measuring the surface hardness, by means of a sclerometer.
This methodology, thanks to a correlation with compression tests of concrete samples, can provide an estimate of the resistance on site.

UNI EN 12504:2

SONIC AND ULTRASONIC TESTS

Non-destructive investigation technique aimed essentially at the knowledge of the speed of propagation of the longitudinal waves through the masonry walls; the more the material is compact and homogeneous, the greater the speed of the sound impulses, since they are not attenuated by the presence of voids or discontinuities.
This test can be combined with other methodologies (SonReb – Sonic + Rebound method) based on the combination of Ultrasonic and Sclerometer methods and combines the time values ​​measured with the ultrasonic technique (volumetric, averaged over 3 measurements) with the values ​​of rebound of the sclerometer (superficial, averaged on 10 measures).
It allows the reliable estimation of resistance values ​​of concrete on site, as the two techniques do not individually provide complete results of the specimen.
The parameters measured with these investigations, propagation speed and rebound index, can be correlated with the compressive strength of the concrete, derived from simple monoaxial compression tests, through a law obtained experimentally. This makes it possible to compare the SONREB resistances with those obtained from the crushing tests of the samples, in order to fine tune the calibration of a correlation system between direct tests (performed on samples) and indirect tests (performed both on site and on samples).

UNI EN 12504:2; UNI EN 12504:4; RILEM 43 CND/80

PACOMETRIC INVESTIGATIONS

Non-destructive investigation that allows the survey of reinforcement rods with the electromagnetic method. It is essential in the preliminary phase for any type of control on structures in C.A. The instrument used is the pacometer, which exploits the physical principle of passive currents: a solid conductor, as can be an armature, subjected to a field of magnetic induction, dissipates a certain amount of power depending on its resistivity and its geometry.
It is therefore possible to identify the position of the rods, moving the probe on the surface under examination, until the direction of maximum electromagnetic absorption corresponds to the longitudinal trend of the bar.

UNI EN 13860 – 1:2003; UNI EN 13860-2:2003; BS1881:204; ACI 318; SIA 162; DIN 1045

EXTRACTION TEST WITH EXPANSION (Pull-off)

Semi-destructive survey technique that allows the measurement of tensile strength or tear resistance of a material applied to a substrate, such as wall cladding (finishing mortars, fibers, plasters or other).
BS EN ISO 4624:2003 – ISO 4624:2002; UNI EN 1015 – 12:2002; UNI EN 1348: 2000

WINDSOR PIN SYSTEM

It is the technique of evaluating the mechanical properties of mortar and bricks in general, by infixing and measuring the advancement of a standardized metal probe. The instrumentation consists of a calibrated gun with a known charge, which fires a metal pin. It is a method of “indentation”; the measured parameter is the depth of the cavity left by the probe on the test surface. The damage done is of very limited depth and dimensions (a few millimeters). The measurement obtained is the average value of 3/5 hits. The readings made are subsequently correlated with the compressive strength of the material by means of appropriate tables.
ASTM C-803

ENDOPSCOPIC INVESTIGATIONS

The endoscopic survey is used to internally analyze masonry walls both in masonry and in concrete by means of specially made holes, but also cavities or lesions already present in the artefacts. In the holes an endoscopic probe is introduced, consisting of an optical fiber rod and a light guide for lighting, which is connected to a camera, allowing to view and record images in real time.
Raccomandazioni NorMaL 42/93

SINGOL AND DOUBLE JACK PLATE

The single screw jack is a semi-distructive technique used to determine the stress acting on determinated points of the masonry examined.
RILEM TC 76 LUM D.2 – ASTM C 1196-92
The double screw jack is a semi-distructive technique used to measure the resistance to uniaxial compression and elastic properties of the masonry(modulus of elasticity) at local level. In this way, it’s possibile to derive the examined wall’s modulus of elasticity as the ratio between the increase of applied pressure and the average specific deformation (detected at leach loading step) for three loading and unloading cycles.
RILEM TC 76 LUM D.3 – ASTM C 1197-91

STATIC TESTS ON FLOORS AND STAIRS

A static load test performed with rubber tanks filled with water up to a maximum of 750 kg / sqm, with the installation of comparators connected to the structure with steel wire invar or through the use of telescopic rods connected to electronic transducers.

MONITORING CRACKING PATTERNS

Control of building injuries through fixed or mobile systems with the possibility of monitoring via remote control units.

THERMAL INVESTIGATION

Powerful and non-invasive method to monitor and diagnose the condition of buildings; by identifying problems early, you are able to document and protect them before they become more serious and expensive to repair. The application of this survey methodology is useful for: visualizing energy losses, detecting insulation defects or defects, identifying air infiltrations, identifying water infiltrations in flat roofs, monitoring building drying, detecting electrical faults, finding faults in the power supply line and central heating, identifying the texture of the wall hangings without removing the plaster, visualizing the presence of anomalies inside the wall face (closed doors, lintels, etc).
UNI 9252:1988; UNI 9124- :1987; UNI 11120:2004; UNI 11131:2005; ISO 6781-83

GEORADAR ON STRUCTURES

Ground Penetrating Radar, or Georadar, is an ultrasound method of geophysical prospecting that allows high resolution non-destructive investigations. Through the propagation of high frequency electromagnetic waves (generally between 10 MHz and 3 GHz), this non-invasive investigation method allows to obtain a continuous section of the investigated medium, reconstructing its internal morphology and thus identifying and identifying structures and objects inside it. .
The method has a very varied applicability: relief of foundations, aquifers and underground structures; mapping of underground utilities, pipes and pipelines; search for abusive landfills and polluting fluids; non-destructive inspections for the assessment of the integrity of structures (walls, tunnels, pavements); mapping of reinforcing rods in C.A. and C.A.P; evaluation of the thickness of roads and runways at airports; research of road infrastructures and evaluation of their geometry and their positioning; verification of thickness of road asphalts, identification of cavities and evaluation of the gravel substrate.

DPCM 3.3.99; CEI 306-8 del 2004